By K. Ugo. Academy of Art University.

The fermentation and oxidation process used for other kinds of tea destroys the polyphenols with loss of health benefits buy cheap fosamax 70mg on line. The objective of the study is to conduct the phytochemical analysis of Myanmar Green-tea so as to evaluate the contents which can contribute to its health benefits and further compare it with plain tea purchase 35 mg fosamax with amex, which was also extensively consumed by the Myanmar people. Myanmar Green-tea (Nara organic Green tea, Kachin special group) and Plain tea (Htoo super plain tea), commercially available in the market, were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of its constituents including alkaloids such as caffeine, total phenols, catechin containing polyphenols, and tannins. The results showed that Myanmar Green-tea has a higher percentage of polyphenols than plain tea, thus supporting the preservation of anti-oxidant properties and its health benefits. Persence of alkaloids including caffeine and related compounds is responsible for the stimulant effect of both Plain tea and Green-tea. Presence of tannins indicated the yellowish color and the refreshing aroma which is unique to the pleasing effect valued by many people. The study supported the importance of the processing methods in making tea if the beneficial effects are to be preserved. The collected tubers were dried, powdered and stored in air tight bottles for further use. The preliminary phytochemical tests and determination of extractive values were determinated by using the powdered tubers. The presence of alkaloids and tannins were mostly dominant in the phytochemical investigation of the powdered tubers. So colchicines, gloriosine and tannins were extracted and isolated by selective solubility method. The isolated compounds were identified by column and thin layer chromatography using benzene, ethyl acetate methanol (2:2:1v/v). The plant extract was prepared from powdered tubers by using polar and non polar solvents. Toxicological investigation of the aqueous extract was performed by using animal model (Pharmacology Research Division, Department of Medical Research). The phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant effects of different extracts of Thea sinensis Linn. Antioxidants may play a major role in the prevention of diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, some forms of cancer and effective to be long life and anti-aging. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of different extracts of Thea sinensis Linn. May Aye Than; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Win Win Maw; Ohnmar Kyaw; Mar Mar Myint; San San Myint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, metal content and antioxidant activity of beetroot which is recently introduced in Myanmar as there is no scientific information available. It contained alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, glycosides, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, steroid/terpenoids, amino acids in the root and flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, steroid/terpenoids and amino acids in leaves. Betacyanin and betaxanthins were isolated as major compounds from fresh juice of beetroot by Harborne methods. Heavy metal contents were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectrometer. Morphological and histological characters were investigated so as to ascertain their correct identification. The dried powder has been examined and presented its diagnostic characters as a standard for medicinal purposes. In morphological study, the plant was perennial twiner with slender flexible and tough branches, stem scarcely woody and seed is bright scarlet with a black spot at the hilum. In histological study, styloid (rod shap) crystals were present in the upper surface and anomocytic stomata were present in the lower surface of the lamina. The cortical region of the young stem consisted of angular collenchymatous cells toward the outside and chlorenchymatous cells toward the inside. Pith region of the mature stem was characterized by pitted lignified parenchymatous cells. Phelloderm of the root was composed of parenchymatous cells and groups of sclereids. In the surface view of fruit, anomocytic stoma, unicellular and glandular trichomes were present. In transverse section, the epicarp and endocarp were composed of tightly packed sclereids. The cotyledon consisted of the epidermis and the spongy parenchymatous cells with aleurone grains. The powdered leaves and the whole plant were tested for the phytochemical constituents and physicochemical properties. Alkaloid, carbohydrate, glycoside, phenolic compound, saponin, flavonoid, terpenoid, steroid, starch, tannin, reducing sugar and ά-amino acid were present but cyanogenic glycoside was absent in both samples. According to physicochemical examination, the leaves and the whole plant were the most soluble in methanol, ethanol and water. According to the chemical tests and spectroscopic data, the four isolated compounds were supposed to be methyl abrusgenate, terpenoid, abruslactone A and precatorine. In antimicrobial activity, the various solvent extracts of leaves and the isolated compounds of the whole plant were tested by using agar well diffusion method.

The clini- ally accumulate in the kidney order 70mg fosamax, however fosamax 35 mg cheap, decreased cal sequelae of hyperphosphatemia are largely benign renal glomerular filtration reduces urine flow, which with one notable exception: when serum phosphate promotes further crystals to form in static urine. To add levels reach a certain threshold, soluble calcium inter- to the problem, children presenting with malignancy acts chemically with phosphate to precipitate into frequently exhibit some degree of dehydration and pre- calcium phosphate. It has been estimated that if the renal azotemia because of poor oral intake and/or fever solubility product factor (Ca × P) reaches a level of 60 at diagnosis. Oliguria from hypovolemia favors intrare- or more, then calcium phosphate will precipitate [83]. If the patient has the and hypocalcemia secondary to hyperphosphatemia added misfortune of his/her tumor invading or com- results [93]. For example, secretion of parathyroid with clearance of other renally excreted compounds Chapter 15 The Tumor Lysis Syndrome: An Oncologic and Metabolic Emergency 209 such as urea, creatinine, and free water. Other useful of uremia include fatigue/weakness, pericarditis, signs include facial plethora or swelling and head/neck and mental confusion and may interfere with nor- venous congestion, which might suggest superior vena mal platelet function, which is of particular concern cava syndrome and cough, stridor, and orthopnea that in thrombocytopenic patients. As renal function might indicate an anterior mediastinal mass and tra- diminishes, signs of volume overload, such as dysp- cheal compression. Critical serum electrolyte studies include a aimed at reducing serum uric acid and phosphate lev- basic electrolyte panel (serum sodium, potassium, els and reestablishing normal urine output, dialysis or chloride, bicarbonate), and serum values for total cal- other renal replacement therapy may be required in cium, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, blood urea severe or refractory cases. A urinalysis with microscopy Large amounts of endogenous intracellular acids are will give an indication of specific gravity and may released from dying tumor cells and their buildup in the exhibit urate crystals, casts, and/or hematuria. In such cases, nephro- progression of malignancy by history and physical logic and/or urologic consultation may be indicated to evaluation. Relevant historical information includes determine the need for dialysis and/or urinary stenting/ time of onset of symptoms referable to the malignancy, catheterization [59]. Other pertinent and to determine whether alterations need to be made historical components that will help guide clinical in clinical management. On examination, special is usually warranted, with intensity and frequency of attention should be given to blood pressure, cardiac monitoring governed by clinical status. However, eral intravenous catheters through which fluids and if delay is not possible (e. Rather, each patient’s therapy (3 L m−2 day−1 or 200 mL kg−1 day−1 if less than 10 kg in should be tailored to his/her particular clinical cir- weight). Diuretics (mannitol and/or furosemide) may be helpful to achieve this urine output, but should not be used in the setting of acute obstructive uropathy or 15. Recently, however, renal function should be aggressively hydrated [14, hyperuricemic patients who would otherwise be at risk 37, 68]. Vigorous fluid therapy maintains urine output, of uric acid nephropathy have been very effectively flushes away existing precipitated uric acid or calcium treated with recombinant urate oxidase, which rap- phosphate crystals from renal tubules (thereby reduc- idly and effectively reduces serum uric acid levels and ing obstructive nephropathy), prevents urinary stasis, reverses uric acid nephropathy. Consequently, hyper- which favors further crystallization, and reduces meta- phosphatemia and calcium phosphate nephropathy bolic acidosis. D’Orazio effectively treated with urate oxidase and who are at low either orally or intravenously, allopurinol effectively risk for uric acid nephropathy but who remain at risk for decreases the formation of new uric acid and has been calcium phosphate nephropathy. Careful thought should shown to reduce the incidence of uric acid obstructive be given to the need for fluid alkalinization. If indicated, alkalinization of the urine can be achie- Though usually well-tolerated and moderately effective, ved by addition of sodium bicarbonate to intravenous it has several drawbacks, which should be considered fluids (Table 15. When alkalinizing whose clearance is xanthine oxidase-dependent, neces- and hyperhydrating a patient, each urine void should sitating dose reductions in purine analogues when used be dipped and adjustments in the rate and/or amount simultaneously with allopurinol [8, 23, 50, 77]. Obviously, potassium, serum uric acid elevation and preserved renal func- calcium, and phosphate should be withheld from tion. If, however, serum uric acid levels are markedly hydration fluids to avoid worsening of hyperkalemia elevated and renal function is significantly impaired, and hyperphosphatemia and to avoid triggering of cal- then rasburicase should be considered the treatment of cium phosphate precipitation in vivo [5, 14, 41, 75]. Clinical manifestations proved far more effective than allopurinol in reducing of hyperkalemia usually appear with serum potassium uric acid levels and overall length of hyperuricemia levels above 6. Being a recombinant enzyme, however, rasburi- constitutional symptoms (nausea, vomiting, anorexia, case is significantly more expensive than allopurinol, and diarrhea) as well as more severe problems such and is therefore generally reserved for patients with as neuromuscular (weakness, cramping, paresthe- very high levels of uric acid and/or clear evidence of sias, paralysis) and cardiac abnormalities (conduc- acute renal failure due to uric acid nephropathy [15]. Often, administration and removes existing uric acid without the first hint of cardiac abnormality due to hyperkale- inducing accumulation of xanthine [69]. Some have suggested potassium, initial medical treatment may require only that in order to reduce therapeutic costs, allopurinol sodium polystyrene sulphonate (Kayexelate) adminis- can be safely administered after an initial rasburicase tration to absorb potassium in the intestine. It is important matic patients, however, more vigorous interventions to note that in rasburicase therapy hydrogen peroxide may be required including insulin and glucose infu- is generated in rasburicase-mediated conversion of sions, albuterol nebulizations, or even hemodialysis uric acid to allantoin; therefore, caution must be used (Table 15. Because of the minimal but potentially life-threatening risk of allergic reaction elicited by rasburicase administra- 15. Aggressive the oncologist to work hand-in-hand with their neph- treatment of asymptomatic hypocalcaemia by intrave- rology and critical care colleagues to optimize care for nous calcium infusion, however, is contraindicated in this complex life-threatening metabolic disorder. Patients with increasing renal after administration of recombinant urate oxidase and cor- rection of serum uric acid as it risks worsening of calcium dysfunction and worsening electrolyte abnormali- phosphate crystallization in renal tubules. Abou Mourad Y, Taher A, Shamseddine A (2003) Acute degradation as tumor cells rapidly turn over at diagnosis tumor lysis syndrome in large B-cell non-Hodgkin lym- and/or shortly after antineoplastic therapy is begun.

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Clinical studies with a product in Japan containing glycyrrhizin—the key component of licorice—have shown excellent results in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis discount 35mg fosamax otc. It is administered intravenously buy cheap fosamax 70mg line, though oral administration may be just as effective, as discussed below. Approximately 40% of patients will have complete resolution—a proportion that compares quite favorably with alpha-interferon’s 40 to 50% clearance rate. However, it is expensive and causes side effects (primarily fever, joint pain, nausea, and flu-like symptoms) in all patients. The numbers are consistent with alpha-interferon’s success rates in both patients at early stages of the disease (0. The goal is to achieve a high level of glycyrrhizin in the blood without producing side effects. Over longer periods, licorice root (more than 3 g per day for more than six weeks) or glycyrrhizin (more than 100 mg per day) may cause sodium and water retention, leading to high blood pressure. Monitoring blood pressure, increasing dietary potassium intake, and following a low-sodium diet are suggested. While adverse effects are quite common at levels above 400 mg per day, they are rarely observed at levels below 100 mg per day. Milk Thistle Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) contains silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans consisting chiefly of silybin, silidianin, and silichristine. Silymarin inhibits hepatic damage by doing the following: • Acting as a direct antioxidant and free radical scavenger • Increasing the content of the protective compounds glutathione and superoxide dismutase within the liver cells • Inhibiting the formation of inflammatory compounds that can damage liver cells • Stimulating liver cell regeneration Silymarin is effective in both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. In one study of acute viral hepatitis, 29 patients treated with silymarin showed a reduction in serum levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes after five days compared with a placebo group. In a study of chronic viral hepatitis, silymarin was shown to result in dramatic improvement. High doses (420 mg per day) of silymarin for periods of 3 to 12 months resulted in a reversal of liver cell damage (as noted by biopsy), an increase in protein level in the blood, and a lowering of liver enzymes. A growing body of scientific research indicates that phosphatidylcholine-bound silymarin is better absorbed and produces better clinical results than unbound silymarin. Liver function returned to normal faster in all patients given silymarin phytosome, compared with those given the commercially available silymarin and those who received the placebo. If higher doses are used, it may be appropriate to use bile-sequestering fiber compounds (e. Bed rest is important during the acute phase of viral hepatitis, with slow resumption of activities as health improves. Strenuous exertion, alcohol, and other liver-toxic drugs and chemicals should be avoided. During the contagious phase (two to three weeks before symptoms appear to three weeks after), there is not much that can be done unless there is prior knowledge of infection, in which case careful hygiene and avoiding close contact with others is important. Once diagnosis is made at any point, work that involves public contact, such as work in day care centers, restaurants, and similar places, is not recommended. Diet During the acute phase, the focus should be on replacing fluids through consumption of vegetable broths, vegetable juices diluted with an equal amount of water, and herbal teas. In the chronic phase, follow the guidelines in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet. Herpes • Recurrent viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes characterized by the appearance of single or multiple clusters of small blisters on a reddened base, frequently occurring about the mouth, lips, genitals, and eye (conjunctiva and cornea) • Incubation period 2 to 12 days, averaging 6 to 7 • Regional lymph nodes may be tender and swollen • Outbreak recurrences may follow minor infections, trauma, stress (emotional, dietary, and environmental), and sun exposure There are more than 70 members in the herpes family of viruses. Although 80% of individuals who have been infected do not have clinically apparent recurrences, they can still shed a virus even if they have no symptoms. After the initial infection, in most people the virus becomes dormant in the nerve cells. The cell-mediated immune system is undoubtedly the major factor in determining whether herpes exposure leads to resistance, latent infection, or clinical disease. The goals of natural medicine are to decrease the number and severity of outbreaks, reduce viral shedding, and prevent transmission to a partner. Following the recommendations in the chapter “Immune System Support” is a good start. Nutritional Supplements Zinc Oral supplementation with zinc (50 mg per day) has been shown to be effective in clinical studies. In a randomized, double-blind study, an ascorbic-acid-containing pharmaceutical formulation (Ascoxal) was applied with a soaked cotton wool pad three times per day for two minutes. Cultures yielded herpes complex viruses significantly less frequently in the treatment group. The bioflavonoid–vitamin C complex was shown to reduce herpes blisters and to prevent the blisters from rupturing. The therapy was most beneficial when it was initiated at the beginning of symptoms. Those treated with bioflavonoids and vitamin C three times per day saw remission of symptoms in 4. This approach came from research showing that lysine has antiviral activity in vitro, owing to its antagonism of arginine metabolism (the two amino acids compete for intestinal transport mechanisms). However, double-blind studies of the effectiveness of lysine supplementation with uncontrolled avoidance of arginine-rich foods have shown inconsistent results.

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New theories and concepts concerning the "self" have grown out of the work and findings of clinical psycholo- gists buy 35 mg fosamax with amex, practicing psychiatrists and cosmetic or so-called "plastic surgeons discount fosamax 35 mg amex. But most of these beliefs about ourselves have unconsciously been formed from our past experiences, our successes and failures, our humiliations, our triumphs, and the way other people have reacted to us, especially in early childhood. Once an idea or belief about ourselves goes into this pic- ture it becomes "true," as far as we personally are con- cerned. We do not question its validity, but proceed to act upon it just as if it were true. This self-image becomes a golden key to living a better life because of two important discoveries: (1) All your actions, feelings, behavior—even your abilities—are always consistent with this self-image. Not only this, but you literally can- not act otherwise, in spite of all your conscious efforts or will power. The man who conceives himself to be a "fail- ure-type person" will find some way to fail, in spite of all his good intentions, or his will power, even if opportunity is literally dumped in his lap. The person who conceives himself to be a victim of injustice, one "who was meant to suffer," will invariably find circumstances to verify his opinions. The self-image is a "premise," a base, or a foundation upon which your entire personality, your behavior, and even your circumstances are built. For example, a schoolboy who sees himself as an "F" type student, or one who is "dumb in mathematics," will invariably find that his report card bears him out. Her woe-begone expression, her hang-dog man- ner, her over-anxiousness to please, or perhaps her un- conscious hostility towards those she anticipates will affront her—all act to drive away those whom she would attract. In the same manner, a salesman or a businessman will also find that his actual experiences tend to "prove" his self-image is correct. Because of this objective "proof" it very seldom occurs to a person that his trouble lies in his self-image or his own evaluation of himself. Tell the schoolboy that he only "thinks" he cannot master algebra, and he will doubt your sanity. Tell the salesman that it is only an idea that he cannot earn more than a certain figure, and he can prove you wrong by his order book. Yet, as we shall see later, almost miraculous changes have occurred both in grades of students, and in the earning capacity of sales- men—when they were prevailed upon to change their self- images. Numerous case his- tories have shown that one is never too young nor too old to change his self-image and thereby start to live a new life. One of the reasons it has seemed so difficult for a per- son to change his habits, his personality, or his way of life, has been that heretofore nearly all efforts at change have been directed to the circumference of the self, so to speak, rather than to the center. Jesus warned us about the folly of putting a patch of new material upon an old garment, or of putting new wine into old bottles. In fact, it is literally impossible to really think about a par- ticular situation, as long as you hold a negative concept of self. And, numerous experiments have shown that once the concept of self is changed, other things consistent with the new concept of self, are accomplished easily and with- out strain. One of the earliest and most convincing experiments along this line was conducted by the late Prescott Lecky, one of the pioneers in self-image psychology. Lecky con- ceived of the personality as a "system of ideas," all of which must seem to be consistent with each other. Ideas which are inconsistent with the system are rejected, "not believed," and not acted upon. Lecky was a school teacher and had an opportunity to test his theory upon thousands of students. If the student could be induced to change his self-defini- tion, his learning ability should also change. One student who misspelled 55 words out of a hundred and flunked so many subjects that he lost credit for a year, made a general average of 91 the next year and became one of the best spellers in school. A boy who was dropped from one college because of poor grades, entered Columbia and became a straight "A" stu- dent. A girl who had flunked Latin four times, after three talks with the school counselor, finished with a grade of 84. A boy who was told by a testing bureau that he had no aptitude for English, won honorable mention the next year for a literary prize. The trouble with these students was not that they were dumb, or lacking in basic aptitudes. Instead of saying "I failed that test" (factual and descriptive) they con- cluded "I am a failure. Lecky also used the same method to cure students of such habits as nail biting and stuttering.

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